Relationship serious leisure and leisure satisfaction mediated by recreational involvement in amateur Volleyball athletes

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Sports Management, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 M.A. Student in Sports Management, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Humanities, , Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Leisure under the effect of socio-economic developments and global values is one of the concerns of individuals. Leisure activities can affect people's physical health and lead to a better life and successful aging in adults. On the other hand, the growth and development of machine life, reduction of working hours and activities, most importantly cultural changes, have made it impossible to ignore your leisure time. The statistics obtained in this field showed that the average lisure time in Iran is 90 days and in the world 80 days per year. The average amount of leisure time in Iran is 3 hours and 29 minutes per day, while the world average is 5 hours. This means that despite the fact that Iranians have more leisure time than the world per capita, the amount of time allocated to it is less and Iranians prefer to spend their budget on other things. Therefore, the vacuum created in this field is questionable as to what factors prevent people from doing leisure activities in their free time, and also the factors that increase leisure activities, to what extent can be increased and strengthened. Due to the tendency of sports and physical education managers and sports media towards championship sports, so far less attention has been paid to leisure sports activities. The subject to be investigated in this context is how much leisure time can affect the satisfaction of the activity and whether the factors affecting the increase of leisure time also increase the satisfaction or not. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of serious leisure on satisfaction from lelisure activities with the mediation of recreational involvement in amateur volleyball athletes. The research method was applied in terms of purpose and correlation interms of data collection, which was done in the field. Data collection tools were questionnaires of Gould et al (2008), Kyle et al (2005) and Ramkisson et al (2012). The target population of the study was non-professional athletes of Tehran Volleyball House who had at least 6 months of membership in this collection. PASS Software was used to determine the sample size and the sampling method was available. Finally, 274 questionnaires were used for statistical analysis. The face and content validity of the data collection tool was reviewed by 9 experts in this field. Cronbach's alpha was 0.95. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used using SPSS software version 26 and PLS version 3. The Findings showed that if a participant has serious leisure traits, more likely than others to understand the importance of the activity and enjoy its appeal. On the other hand, people should have characteristics such as individual efforts, perseverance and commitment in the activity to pursue recreational activities. one of the most important factors to increase people's satisfaction with leisure activities is recreational participation (Path coefficient 0.519). Among the dimensions of recreational participation, attraction has the greatest impact (Path coefficient = 0.449 and AVE = 0.747), so it can be said that the more irritable people are to an activity, the greater their satisfaction. Entertainment participation predicts 49% and serious leisure 42% of changes in leisure satisfaction, and 66% recreational involvement of changes depend on the serious leisure of volleyball players. taking into account the mediating role of recreational participation in the relationship between serious leisure and leisure satisfaction, the results showed that despite dimensions such as attraction, self-expression, centrality of lifestyle, the relationship between the two variables of serious leisure and leisure satisfaction becomes stronger. Recreational participation with its mediating role can create a positive experience in people and their satisfaction with recreational activities. According to the output of the software used in this research, 51% of the changes in satisfaction with leisure activities are related to recreational participation and serious leisure of non-professional volleyball players of Tehran Volleyball House. Therefore, considering a factor such as recreational involvement can be a great help to the officials in the field of leisure to attract and satisfy more customers of Tehran Volleyball House. In the present study, the relationship between perseverance and customs on leisure satisfaction was not significant. This issue can be interpreted as that the researches were conducted on old people and adults, but according to the descriptive findings of the research, 45.6% of the statistical sample of the current research were under 20 years of age, so they endure problems and hardships and barriers to leisure. Seriously, it's probably difficult for them, and they don't have a proper understanding of customs and subcultures. But the identity of volleyball players is very important in their leisure time. People who follow volleyball as a serious leisure identify themselves with volleyball, and their family and friends also know how important it is for a volleyball player to do volleyball activities. With the improvement of athletes' performance in this area and their efforts, their satisfaction with volleyball will also increase. Educators should know that by knowing the goals of their students, they can help them achieve their goals. The design of exercises that are accompanied by pleasure and happiness by volleyball coaches can attract athletes more to this discipline, so that they prefer volleyball to other sports. The participants in the volleyball field who are satisfied with their leisure activity in the volleyball house know that their life is connected to volleyball, so they plan in life in such a way that the position of volleyball is always reserved. The managers of the complexes can increase the attractiveness for the volleyball players or create suitable conditions for the participants who can show a good image of themselves to others, causing them to be satisfied with the activities they do, which ultimately leads to the loyalty of the volleyball players. For example, having up to date sports equipment, designing exercises with joy and pleasure, and giving athletes the opportunity to discuss volleyball can be very important in the field of loyalty of volleyball players. The participants in the volleyball field who are satisfied with their leisure activity in the volleyball house know that their life is connected to volleyball, so they plan in life in such a way that the position of volleyball is always reserved.


Main Subjects

Avunduk, Y. (2021). The Relationship between Leisure Satisfaction and Hopelessness. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 10(1), 6- 11.
Birdsong, M., Hunt, L. M., & Arlinghaus, R. (2021). Recreational angler satisfaction: What drives it?. Fish and Fisheries.
Brown, G., & Raymond, C. (2007). The relationship between place attachment and landscape values: Toward mapping place attachment. Applied geography, 27(2), 89-111.
Carr, N. (2017). Re-thinking the relation between leisure and freedom. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(2), 137-151.
Cheng, Tien-Ming, and Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur. "The relationship between serious leisure characteristics and recreation involvement: A case study of Taiwan’s surfing activities." Leisure Studies 31.1 (2012): 53-68.
Cheng, T. M., & Lu, C. C. (2015). The causal relationships among recreational involvement, flow experience, and well-being for surfing activities. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(sup1), 1486-1504.
Chick, G., Hsu, Y. C., Yeh, C. K., Hsieh, C. M., Ramer, S., Bae, S. Y., & Dong, E. (2020). Cultural consonance mediates the effects of leisure constraints on leisure satisfaction: A reconceptualization and replication. Leisure Sciences, 1- 20.
Chin, W. W. (1998). Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling.
Eom, T., Han, H., & Song, H. (2020). Discovering the perceived attributes of CBT destination travelers in South Korea: A mixed method approach. Tourism Management, 77, 104013.
Cho, H., & Chiu, W. (2021). The Role of Leisure Centrality in University Students’ Self-satisfaction and Academic Intrinsic Motivation. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 30(2), 119-130.
Chun, B., Roh, E. Y., Spralls III, S. A., & Cheng, C. I. (2021). Personal growth leisure experience in Templestay: International tourist outcomes, satisfaction, and recommendation. Journal of Leisure Research, 52(1), 77-96.
Gould, J., Moore, D., McGuire, F., & Stebbins, R. (2008). Development of the serious leisure inventory and measure. Journal of Leisure Research, 40(1), 47- 68.
Havitz, M. E., & Mannell, R. C. (2005). Enduring involvement, situational involvement, and flow in leisure and non-leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(2), 152-177.
Heidari, K., Heydarinejad, S., Saffari, M., & Khatibi, A. (2019). Investigating the leisure behavior of Iranians: the structural model of serious leisure, recreation specialization and place attachment. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1-17.
Heidari, K., Heydarinejad, S., Saffari, M., & Khatibi, A. (2020). How Does Seriousness in Leisure Effect on Place Attachment of Unprofessional Athletes?. Research on Educational Sport, 8(19), 91-114.
Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial management & data systems, 116(1), 2-20.
Heo, J., Lee, Y., Pedersen, P. M., & McCormick, B. P. (2010). Flow experience in the daily lives of older adults: An analysis of the interaction between flow, individual differences, serious leisure, location, and social context. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 29(3), 411- 423.
Heo, J., Ryu, J., Yang, H., Kim, A. C. H., & Rhee, Y. (2018). Importance of playing pickleball for older adults’ subjective well-being: A serious leisure perspective. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(1), 67-77.
Hintze, J. (2011). PASS 11. NCSS, LLC. Kaysville, Utah, USA. Kim, J., Dattilo, J., & Heo, J. (2011). Taekwondo participation as serious leisure for life satisfaction and health. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 545- 559.
Kirchengast, S. (2014). Physical inactivity from the viewpoint of evolutionary medicine. Sports, 2(2), 34-50.
Kiani, M., Nazari, L., & Shahbazpour, L. (1401). The effect of aesthetic factors and service quality on perceived value of loyalty and customer satisfaction (Case study of Kermanshah pools) Journal of Sport Marketing Studies, 3(2) [in Persian]
Kono, S., Ito, E., & Gui, J. (2020). Empirical investigation of the relationship between serious leisure and meaning in life among Japanese and Euro-Canadians. Leisure studies, 39(1), 131-145.
Kordlu, H., Mohammadi, H., Moharram zadeh, M., & Azizian kohan, N. (1399). The relationship between social media marketing and customer satisfaction of sports recreation centers. Journal of Sport Marketing Studies. 1(4). 116-133 [in persian]
Kuijsters, N., Goedee, J., & Leenders, R. (2019). Passionate about the sport, dedicated to the club? A systematic review study to the predictors, dimensions and outcomes of membership involvement in recreational sports and leisure. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 7(4), 59-73.
Kyle, Gerard, and Garry Chick. "Enduring leisure involvement: The importance of personal relationships." Leisure Studies 23.3 (2004): 243-266.
Kyle, G., Graefe, A., & Manning, R. (2005). Testing the dimensionality of place attachment in recreational settings. Environment and Behavior, 37(2), 153- 177.
Lee, T. H., & Shen, Y. L. (2013). The influence of leisure involvement and place attachment on destination loyalty: Evidence from recreationists walking their dogs in urban parks. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 33, 76-85.
Liu, H. (2014). Personality, leisure satisfaction, and subjective well-being of serious leisure participants. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 42(7), 1117-1125.
Liu, H., & Yu, B. (2015). Serious leisure, leisure satisfaction and subjective well-being of Chinese university students. Social Indicators Research, 122(1), 159-174.
Liu, H, L. (2012). Relationship Among Serious Leisure, Recreation Specialization, and Place Attachment for Amateur Athletes. Ph.D. diss., Oklahoma State University.
Lizana, M., Carrasco, J. A., & Tudela, A. (2019). Studying the relationship between activity participation, social networks, expenditures and travel behavior on leisure activities. Transportation, 1-22.
Meekes, Jasper F., Dorina M., Buda, and Gert de Roo. "Socio-spatial complexity in leisure development." Annals of Tourism Research 80 (2020): 102814.
Murray, D. W., & O'Neill, M. A. (2015). Home brewing and serious leisure: Exploring the motivation to engage and the resultant satisfaction derived through participation. World Leisure Journal, 57(4), 284-296.
Özdemir, A. S. (2020). Serious Leisure Perspectives in Sports: Professional Athletes' Career Progress via Serious Leisure. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 6(2), 186-195.
Park, K. W., Lee, C. W., & Kim, M. J. (2016). Effect of serious leisure experience on the leisure satisfaction among senior sport games participants. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16, 584.
Ramkissoon, H., Smith, L. D. G., & Weiler, B. (2013). Relationships between place attachment, place satisfaction and pro-environmental behaviour in an Australian national park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(3), 434-457.
Saffari, M. (2020). Analysis of Women's Place Identity and Dependence in Leisure Activities. Quarterly Journal of Women and Society, 11(42), 135-154.
Saffari, M., Ehsani, M., Amiri, M., & Kozechian, H. (2013). Designing the model of sport for all in Iran. Asian Social Science, 9(2), 208.
Sherif, M., & Cantril, H. (1947). The psychology of ego-involvements: Social attitudes and identifications.
Smith, K. W., Palmer, M. A., Kline, K. R., & Deville, D. D. (2011). U.S. Patent No. 8,034,077. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Stebbins, R. A. (1992). Amateurs, professionals, and serious leisure. McGill[1]Queen's Press-MQUP.
Stebbins, R. (2012) Comment on Scott: Recreation Specialization and the CL[1]SL Continuum, Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 34:4, 372-374.
Tsai, C. P. (2018). Case Study: A Study of Recreational Participation Motivation, Serious Leisure and Recreational Specialization in Tennis Participants. Advances in Management, 11(1), 5-11.
Veal, A. J. (2017). The serious leisure perspective and the experience of leisure. Leisure Sciences, 39(3), 205-223