Test of The Role of Satisfaction Mediation Model In The Causal Relationship of Entrepreneurial Marketing With The Desire To Re-Attend Customers of Sports Complexes In Karaj

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D student in sports management, University of Science and Research, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Sports Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Management, Payam Noor University, Karaj, Iran.


The increasing growth of technology in recent years in all fields, especially in the field of sports equipment and facilities, and the privatization of most sports venues has created intense competition between the owners and managers of sports organizations to attract and retain customers. It is obvious that organizations can be more successful in the field of competition that can attract more customers and keep them satisfied for the purpose of coming again. On the other hand, life in today's competitive world is very hard and difficult without achieving optimal productivity, and sports organizations must search for new ways to attract and retain more customers and gain their satisfaction. Unfortunately, in Iranian sports, sports complexes are facing the problem of reducing customer loyalty and reluctance to return and use the services of that complex, one of the reasons for which is the inattention and ignorance of sports managers to new marketing approaches. (Mirzaei, Hoseini, 2016). Therefore, due to the importance of sports and physical education in people's daily lives and its impact on people's health, and according to the country's economic development strategy through non-oil income, sports have an important place in the economic growth and development of any country, and the sports industry can be a factor for creating wealth. to play a role in the country; Therefore, in order to create wealth and stimulate the thriving sports industry, it is necessary to get better acquainted with the needs and demands of sports customers, rather than examining entrepreneurial solutions and creativity and innovation in service marketing. Therefore, The purpose of this study is to test the role model of satisfaction mediation in the causal relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and the desire to re-attend customers of sports complexes in Karaj. In terms of its nature, the present research is considered to be of the quantitative research type and according to the applied purpose, and of the descriptive-correlation type and based on structural equations, and the data collection process is a field method. The statistical population of the current research was all the male and female customers of sports complexes in the city of Karaj with an unknown number in 2019. Considering that the current research is a causal research type (structural equations), therefore, in the methodology of structural equations modeling, to determine the sample size, it is possible to determine between 5 and 10 subjects for each question and condition, at least 200 subjects, which is considered the suggested ceiling in this research and Therefore, the number of subjects was determined to be 230 and the non-random sampling method was available.
The statistical method used in this research is the partial least squares model, which is done in two stages, in this research, in the first stage, the measurement model is through convergent validity analysis using the variance extracted from the constructs and composite reliability, Cronbach's alpha and divergent validity. It was investigated through the square root of the variance extracted from the structures and the correlation of the structures and the HTMT ratio. In the second step, the fit of the structural model was determined by the coefficient of determination of the model and the validity indices of the shared constructs were checked in order to check the quality of the measuring instrument and the fit indices of the structural model (GOF) was analyzed. It is worth mentioning that the Sobel test was used to investigate the mediating effect of satisfaction in the relationship between entrepreneurship and re-attendance.The questionnaires used were Barry's (1996) the standard Future Behavioral Decisions Questionnaire with a reliability of 0.85 and the researcher-made Entrepreneurial Marketing Questionnaire (1399) with a reliability of 0.94 and the standard questionnaire of customer satisfaction of Irkan (2012) with a reliability of 0.70. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data by partial least squares method with the help of Excel, SPSS and PLS Smart statistical software.Findings showed In the first stage, the measurement model is examined through convergent validity according to the opinion of Fornell and Larker (1981) criterion of variance extracted from constructs (AVE) 0.50 and the opinion of Magner et al. (1996) the criterion above 0.40, with both criteria it is determined that The variance extracted from the constructs is acceptable. Also, the combined reliability (Dillon-Goldstein coefficient) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the structures are acceptable according to the criteria of 0.70; Therefore, according to the validity results, convergence and reliability of the model is acceptable. Also, one of the other indicators in the divergent or differential validity of the model is the examination of the HTMT ratio, which is said to be below 1 in various sources (some sources are below 0.90 and even 0.85). The obtained results show the reconfirmation of the model's divergent validity. Also, in order to check the quality of the model, checking the subscription indicators is used. This index is obtained by dividing the sum of the squares of the prediction errors of the local variables by the sum of the squares of the observations of the local variables minus the number one. The obtained values ​​of this index for all current variables must be positive values; Therefore, according to the obtained values ​​of the variable of satisfaction (0.229) and the variable of willingness to attend again (0.301) and the positiveness of all the values ​​of subscription validity for the current variables, it can be said that the measurement model has a suitable quality.According to this study Entrepreneurial marketing shows an opportunistic perspective, where pioneering managers look for innovative ways to create value for customers and create customer capital for the organization and increase the overall performance of the organization in businesses. This direct structural model showed the direct relationship between the variable of entrepreneurial marketing and its six components with the variable of willingness to attend again and the variable of satisfaction. According to the results of the research, entrepreneurial marketing has explained about 65% of the variance of the willingness to attend again and about 45% of the variance of the satisfaction variable. Entrepreneurship is a process to find innovation opportunities in risky and uncertain conditions by combining production factors in an efficient and effective way, entrepreneurial groups tend to be at the center of gaining competitive advantage by producing new and unique and competitive products in today's changing markets. Cultivating the creativity of entrepreneurs will be done in order to grow their business (Ratten, 2018). In this regard, entrepreneurial marketing by continuously creating and providing special value to customers by discovering new opportunities and resources and innovating in services and responding appropriately to their new demands leads to the adaptation of products and services to the needs and expectations of customers, helping to recognize and invest in profitable customers. And finally, retaining and attracting new customers and improving the level of customer performance, which in turn affects the sports complex's financial performance in a positive way. 


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