The effect of attachment to the event on the behavioral intentions of Premier League spectators with the mediating role of satisfaction and sense of place

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

2 PhD Student in Sports Management, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran.


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of attachment to the event on the behavioral intentions of Premier League spectators with the mediating role of satisfaction and sense of place. The present study is an applied research in terms of purpose and quantitatively in terms of strategy and correlational in terms of implementation path, field data in terms of data collection and prospective in terms of time. The statistical population of the study includes all fans of Premier League football clubs. They make up at least 8 games from the club they watched live, so the sample size of the study was calculated using the Cochran's formula of 384 people who were purposefully selected. Funk and James (2006) Event Attachment Questionnaire Satisfaction with the location of Ramkison, Smith and Wheeler (2013), Behavioral intentions of Githmal et al. (1996) and finally Movahed et al. (2015) questionnaire to assess the sense of place. شد. The research hypotheses were analyzed at an error level of 5% using Smart PLS software. The results showed that attachment to place has an effect on satisfaction, sense of place and behavioral intentions. Sense of place affects behavioral intentions and satisfaction affects behavioral intentions. In addition, it was found that attachment to place has a positive and significant effect on the behavioral intentions of the brand through satisfaction. Finally, the results showed that in addition, it was found that attachment to place has a positive and significant effect on the behavioral intentions of the brand through a sense of place.


Auger, D., Fortier, J., Thibault, A., Magny, D., Gravelle, F., & Auger, D. (2010). Characteristics and motivations of sports officials in the Province of Quebec. International Journal of Sport Management Recreation & Tourism, 5, 29-50.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.
Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological bulletin, 88(3), 588.
Berman, W. H., & Sperling, M. B. (1994). The structure and function of adult attachment. Attachment in adults: Clinical and developmental perspectives, 3-28.
Bigné, J. E., Andreu, L., & Gnoth, J. (2005). The theme park experience: An analysis of pleasure, arousal and satisfaction. Tourism management, 26(6), 833-844.
Buhalis, D. (2001). The tourism phenomenon. Tourism in the Age of Globalization, 10, 69.
Con, A. C., & CHong B. (2018). The   travelling   fan: Understanding   the mechanisms of sport fan consumption in a sport tourism setting. Journal of sport & tourism, 12(3-4), 155-181.
Davari, Ali, & Rezazadeh, Arash. (2018). Structural Equation Modeling with PLS Software, Second Edition, Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Publishing Organization
Delaware, Ali. (2010). Probability and Applied Statistics in Psychology and Educational Sciences. Ninth Edition, Tehran: Roshan Publications
Eidi, Hossein, Abbasi, Homayoun, & Almasi, Samaneh. (2019). Investigating the mediating role of place attachment in the relationship between place satisfaction and behavioral intentions (Case study: Sports spectators of the Nations Volleyball League). Communication management in sports media. Volume 6, Number 3, pp. 51-66.
Falahat, Mohammad Sadegh. (2019). The concept of sense of belonging to a place and its constituent factors. Journal of City Identity. 5, pp. 27-37.
Filo, K., Funk, D. C., & O’Brien, D. (2009). The meaning behind attachment: Exploring camaraderie, cause, and competency at a charity sport event. Journal of Sport Management, 23(3), 361-387.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (2008). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research. 18(1). 39-50.
Funk, D. C., & James, J. D. (2006). Consumer loyalty: The meaning of attachment in the development of sport team allegiance. Journal of Sport Management, 20(2), 189-217.
Hair Jr JF., Hult GT., Ringle C., & Sarstedt M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications. Second Edition.
Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Nenglewood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Halpenny, E. A., & Kulczycki, C. (2016). Factors affecting return participation in sport tourism running events: The role of running involvement, place attachment, event attachment and travel patterns.
Hayduk, L. A. (1987). Structural equation modeling with LISREL: Essentials and advances: Jhu Press.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 5 (28) :21-33.
Holmes, J. (2014). The search for the secure base: Attachment theory and psychotherapy. Routledge.
Hosany, S., Prayag, G., Van Der Veen, R., Huang, S., & Deesilatham, S. (2016). Mediating Effects of Place Attachment and Satisfaction on the Relationship between Tourists’ Emotions and Intention to Recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 0047287516678088.
Kim, S., Lee, Y. K., & Lee, C. K. (2019). The moderating effect of place attachment on the relationship between festival quality and behavioral intentions. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(1), 49-63.
Kirkup, N., & Sutherland, M. (2017). Exploring the relationships between motivation, attachment and loyalty within sport event tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(1), 7-14.
Kozak, M. (2019). Repeaters’ behavior at two distinct destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(3): 784-807.
Lee, C. Lee. (2018). A multi-ethnic comparison of service quality and satisfaction in National Forest recreation.
Li, C. L. (2003). A multi-ethnic comparison of service quality and satisfaction in National Forest recreation. (Doctoral Dissertation), the College of Health and Human Development of the Pennsylvania State University.
Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Karroubi, & Mehdi-Hosseini, Majid. (1387). Investigating the role of nostalgia (past memories) in the behavioral goals of sports ski tourists. Applied Research in Sports Management, Fifth Year, No. 3, pp. 65-78
Mark, S., Philip, L., & Adrian, T. (2009). Research methods for business students. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Ramkissoon, H., Smith, L. D. G., & Weiler, B. (2013). Testing the dimensionality of place attachment and its relationships with place satisfaction and pro-environmental behaviours: A structural equation modelling approach. Tourism management, 36, 552-566.
Samadi, Mansour-Hajipour, & Bahman-Farsizadeh, Hossein. (2006). Lack of services, resuscitation strategies and their impact on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Management, Volume 1, Number 1, Pages 71 to 86.
Su, L., Swanson, S. R., & Chen, X. (2016). The effects of perceived service quality on repurchase intentions and subjective well-being of Chinese tourists: The mediating role of relationship quality. Tourism Management, 52, 82-95.
Tenenhaus, M., Amato, S., & Esposito Vinzi, V. (2004). A global goodness-of-fit index for PLS structural equation modelling. In Proceedings of the XLII SIS scientific meeting. 1. 739-742.
Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schröder, G., & Van Oppen, C. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: Guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS quarterly, 177-195.
Wu, H. C., Li, T., & Li, M. Y. (2018). A study of behavioral intentions, patient satisfaction, perceived value, patient trust and experiential quality for medical tourists. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 17(2), 114-150.
Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F., & Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination attachment: Effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive, affective and conative loyalty. Tourism Management, 31(2), 274-284.