عنوان مقاله [English]
Individuals' motivation to initiate and adhere to physical and cognitive exercise and a deeper understanding of it allow prescribing a personalized exercise program that maximizes adherence and ultimately proficiency. In addition, measures of an older person's motivation maintain the identification of targets for new physical and cognitive exercise interventions, thereby enabling program adherence. Promoting the physical activity of the elderly improves health and well-being, creates a healthier and stronger society, reduces treatment costs, increases social interactions, creates an active society, Increases self-expression and self-esteem, and ultimately being active in life. The purpose of the research was to explain the effect of social marketing on motivating sports participation of the elderly in East Azerbaijan province. The main direction of the research is applied and descriptive in nature. The quantitative research method is based on structural equations with a comparative approach of a descriptive correlation type, which was conducted by the researcher as a survey. The statistical population of the research was the elderly sportsmen of East Azarbaijan province in 1400, based on the logical sample size required in structural equation modeling, 200 people were considered as a statistical sample. The measurement tool is a 45-item researcher-made questionnaire containing research variables; predictor variable; Social marketing included personal wellfare with 5 questions and social wellfare with 5 questions and the criterion variable for sports participation motivation included physical fitness with 5 questions, social motivation with 6 questions, cognitive with 6 questions, challenge with 6 questions, participation with 5 questions, and medical with 7 questions. The content validity of the questionnaire was studied and confirmed by calculating the average variance extracted in the community and external evaluation of the model according to Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Composite reliability. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. In order to verify and fit the model, confirmatory factor analysis method was used through Spss20 and Lisrel8.5 software.
Since social marketing is an effective approach in changing behavior. In addition to changing individual behavior, the welfare of society is also considered, social marketing, a complementary approach to this idea, is a comprehensive look at three levels of social change: micro, medium and macro. The ultimate mission of social marketing is to institutionalize desirable behavior and enjoy its benefits. A better understanding of core marketing concepts supports better planning, execution and effectiveness. Social marketers have a wide range of marketing tools at their disposal and use them in interventions. Social marketing creates social relationships between program participants and provides their support and interaction.
In order to evaluate the psychological and social consequences depending on the different levels of sports participation, it is necessary to use appropriate instruments for participation in sports for the elderly. Based on this, no attempt has been made to develop new tools to assess the level of sports participation and related behavioral patterns for the elderly. In this research, the sports participation motivation model based on social marketing was explained and confirmed.
The results showed that social marketing on six dimensions of sports participation motivation; Physical fitness, social, cognitive, challenging, collaborative, medical motivation have a significant positive effect. Since social marketing had a significant positive effect on the physical fitness of the elderly. The indicators of improving physical fitness, desire to be physically fit, maintaining health, achieving relaxation, and having a good body shape were recognized as necessary in the physical fitness of the elderly. Based on the fact that social marketing had a significant positive effect on the social motivation of the elderly. The indicators of society's positive attitude towards sports for the elderly, being together with their group and peers, willingness of family and friends, using peers to perform sports activities, interest in social aspects of sports, desire to make friends, provide the context of social motivation. Also, social marketing had a significant positive effect on the cognitive dimension of the elderly. Indicators of reducing mental pressure, increasing self-confidence, focusing on sports movements, gaining vitality and pleasure, interest in sports activities, measuring individual abilities in the cognitive dimension of the elderly are useful and productive. Because social marketing had a significant positive effect on the challenge dimension of the elderly. Indicators of interest in going out of the house, avoiding mental conflicts, interest in excitement, awareness of the benefits of sports, learning new sports movements, getting to know a large group of peers explain the sports challenges of the elderly. Also, social marketing had a significant positive effect on the participation dimension of the elderly. The desire to participate in doing things, interest in competition, desire to have fun, helping peers in doing sports activities, interest in doing sports participation of the elderly are indicators. Finally, social marketing had a significant positive effect in the aspect of geriatric medicine. The indicators of back pain prevention, being able to do personal work, having peace, enjoying general health, having minimal illness, pain relief, exercise as recommended by doctor have formed Identifier the medical dimension of exercise for the elderly.
Therefore, the use of social marketing for elderly athletes, better physical fitness compared to people who have an incomplete level of physical fitness, provides a better opportunity to increase skills. The social aspect of sport is very important for this age group where participants use sport to socialize with family and in their local community, encouraging family members to support older people to be physically active through sport, whilst providing sport opportunities In which the elderly can build social capital through sports and use sports to socialize with their families, one of the key aspects of changing this demographic group is related to and leading to social health. Family-related factors help them maintain their cognitive functions by stimulating the brain.
Therefore, future interventions can be considered to adopt a family-based approach to increase the physical activity of adults. Motivation is a challenge to initiate and adhere to a physical and cognitive exercise program by older adults. Therefore, efforts can be made to relate physical activity to the specific challenges the participants faced, and support from family members is essential for this population. There are different types of social support for participation in physical activity with interactions including periods before (i.e. meeting), during (i.e. talking) and after participation in physical activity (i.e. participating in other activities). Therefore, sports participation of the elderly can improve their life satisfaction, social life, and personal psychological status. In this way, this research is an innovative addition to the research collection for the participation of the elderly in social sports.