عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this research was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the sustainable marketing orientation questionnaire in the community of managers of active sports clubs in Mashhad. The The current research is descriptive and according to the psychometric properties of the sustainable marketing scale in the environment of sports clubs, the method of data collection belongs to correlational designs. The statistical population of this research was made up of all managers of sports clubs in Mashhad (N=1400). In order to determine the number of statistical samples, Nanali and Orit's suggestion of a ratio of 10 subjects to 1 variable and Guilford's recommendation (observing the minimum sample size of 200 subjects), which is known as Müller's rule of thumb (1996), were used, and therefore, 278 questionnaires were used as sampling. Collected available. The measurement tool used is the sustainable marketing orientation questionnaire made by Lukik et al. (2020) which consists of 15 questions and has the components of strategic integration (questions 1 to 6), social engagement (questions 7 to 11) and ethical capabilities. (Questions 12 to 15). In order to check the validity of the translation, the measurement tool was determined from the standard translation-re-translation-translation method using the opinions of three professors fluent in English. In order to analyze the data, descriptive indices and statistical tests of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, McDonald's omega coefficient, theta coefficient, Brown's classification, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used in SPSS, Lisrel and Stata statistical software.
The findings of exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation showed that the criteria for extracting components, the slope of the scree curve and the eigenvalue were higher than 1, based on which three main components were identified, and therefore, using the exploratory factor analysis method, the questionnaire had 15 The question has 3 components. Also, the questions of the sustainable marketing orientation questionnaire explain 60.72% of the total variance. Therefore, the variance percentages for the strategic integration component are 13.26, the social participation component is 19.12, and the moral capabilities component is 28.34. The results of the factor load of the questions indicate that the factor load of all the questions is acceptable. According to the results obtained from the form and content validity of the sustainable marketing orientation questionnaire, the values of the CVR index are higher than 0.49 and the values of the CVI index are higher than 0.79. The results showed that the sustainable marketing orientation questionnaire has an acceptable internal reliability (θ=0.979, Ω=0.971, α=0.963). Also, the reliability of strategic integration components (θ=0.961, Ω=0.953, α=0.943), social participation (θ=0.886, Ω=0.869, α=0.846) and capabilities Ethical (θ=0.926, Ω=0.901, α=0.892). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the relationship between questions (1 to 6) with the component of strategic integration, questions (7 to 11) with the component of social participation and questions (12 to 15) with the component of moral capabilities is significant. Also, the results showed that there is a significant relationship between the components of strategic integration, social participation and ethical capabilities with the concept of sustainable marketing orientation. The results showed that the ratio of X2 to df is equal to 2.32 and the root mean square error (RMSEA) is equal to 0.092, so the structural model of the questionnaire has the necessary fit. Also, the indices NFI=0.92, CFI=0.93, GFI=0.91, AGFI=0.90 and IFI=0.93 confirmed the fit of the structural model of the questionnaire. Therefore, in total, all 7 mentioned indicators confirm the fit of the model and it can be acknowledged that the sustainable marketing orientation model is suitable in terms of fit indicators and all three components mentioned can be integrated in the structural model of the questionnaire. The average variance extracted for all three components is higher than 0.5, so the convergent validity of the constructs is confirmed. Also, according to the combined reliability values (Dillon-Goldstein coefficient) for each of the structures, it is acceptable, and as a result, the reliability of the model is confirmed.
Finally, the internal and external validity of the presented model is confirmed. This result means that the structural equation model presented with the help of the software (Lisrel) in this research is a suitable structural model and fits the data obtained from this research. Based on this, it can be concluded that the data collected by this questionnaire can provide reliable results and provide researchers with accurate information. Based on the findings, the sustainable marketing orientation questionnaire is a reliable and valid scale that can be used to evaluate the performance of sports managers in the field of sustainable marketing and obtain reliable and stable results. Based on this, the sustainable marketing orientation model can provide detailed instructions on how to implement an effective sustainable marketing system to different sports managers.