نقش ویژگی‌های استادیوم بر تجربۀ خدمت تماشاگران فوتبال (مورد مطالعه: استادیوم آزادی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت ورزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

2 استادیار مدیریت ورزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار مدیریت ورزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر ویژگی‌های استادیوم بر تجربۀ خدمت تماشاگران در استادیوم‌ فوتبال آزادی بود. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر شیوۀ گردآوری اطلاعات تحقیق توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است که به صورت پیمایشی به اجرا در آمد. جامعة آماری پژوهش شامل تماشاگران حاضر در استادیوم‌ آزادی بود. که به صورت دسترس انتخاب شده و در نهایت، تعداد 165 پرسشنامۀ قابل تحلیل به مرحلۀ تجزیه و تحلیل پژوهش راه یافتند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌های میدانی در این تحقیق از پرسشنامه به عنوان ابزار تحقیق استفاده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد راحتی صندلی‌ها، زیبایی استادیوم، تمیزی استادیوم و طراحی استادیوم بر تجربۀ خدمت تماشاگران تأثیر مثبت و معنی‌داری دارند. اما تأثیر پارکینگ استادیوم، دسترسی استادیوم و خدمات غذایی استادیوم بر تجربۀ خدمت تماشاگران معنی‌دار نشد. تحقیق حاضر در راستای کمک به درک بیشتر در این زمینه انجام شد ونتایج آن نشان داد که از میان ویژگی‌های استادیوم، 4 عامل راحتی صندلی‌ها، طراحی استادیوم، تمیزی استادیوم و زیبایی استادیوم تأثیر قابل توجهی بر تجربۀ خدمت تماشاگران لیگ برتر فوتبال ایران دارند. از این رو، مدیران فوتبال ایران و مدیران استادیوم می‌توانند با در نظر گرفتن این نتایج و نیز نتایج سایر تحقیقاتی که در این زمینه به آن اشاره شد، به ارتقای تجربۀ خدمت تماشاگران در لیگ برتر فوتبال ایران اقدام نموده و از مزایای آن بهره‌مند گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of Sportscape on Service Experience of Football Spectators (case of Azadi stadium)

نویسندگان [English]

  • shayan pooladi 1
  • Hossein Abdolmaleki 2
  • Mehdi Kohandel 3
1 Msc of sport management, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of sport management, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of sport management, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Given the growing importance of service experience and enhancing the experience of sports fans in the sports environment, the study of variables and factors that can provide a better experience for fans, has created a new and attractive field for researchers and sports marketers. Sports is one of the most important categories of today's societies, especially modern and industrial societies, which a large part of the population of every country deal with in various ways. The unique features of sports have made it a part of today's society, so that its importance is increasing day by day (Abdolmaleki, Heidari, Zakizadeh, & De Bosscher, 2019). In the meantime, football has been able to find a special place among different strata of people and present itself as a super sport. The unique characteristics of football and having high attraction and excitement have turned it into an industry with its own components and complexities (Ramezaninezhad et al., 2020). Meanwhile, the most important and influential factor in the football industry are the spectators or fans. In fact, the spectators are considered a part of the sports product, who give excitement to the sports competition with their participation and fandom of their favorite players and teams (Drayer & Shapiro, 2011). On the other hand, attracting spectators to sports events are the basic strategies of sports teams to increase their income and distinguish themselves from other teams. That is, the more the teams attract more spectators, the more income they will earn (directly and indirectly) (Gholizadeh, Talebpour, Kashtidar, & Abdolmaleki, 2018). The economic benefits along with the presence of spectators have prompted sports marketers to look for ways to attract and develop them. Football spectators are not only useful for increasing the capital of the club, but their social role is also considered important. Spectators are a complementary part of the main nature of sports. Because they provide a direct and live social environment for the player. With the absence of spectators, the athlete cannot perform well and shows a low level of performance (Nazemi, 2013). Studies conducted in the field of general tourism also show that past experiences are an important indicator that tourists refer to when choosing a new experience (Kerstetter & Cho, 2004). Abdolmaleki (2020) showed that the positive experience of the services provided can lead to frequent visits by heritage tourists in the future (Abdolmaleki, 2020). Lemon and Verhoef (2016) also believe that it is the service experience that can lead to customer satisfaction, and the quality of service comes next (Lemon & Verhoef, 2016). Therefore, as it was said, it can be argued that in the case of spectators, the service experience can be an important factor in post-experience behaviors. Because the advancement of technology has led to the personalization of experience, and people with different personalities are looking for different experiences (Hwang & Lee, 2018). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sportscape on spectator service experience in Iranian football stadiums. The present study is a descriptive-correlational study which was conducted in the field. The statistical population of the study included all the spectators present at Azadi Stadium who had purchased tickets and gone to the stadium in the 2019-2020 season. The sampling method was non-random using the convenience sampling strategy (electronically) in which 165 questionable questionnaires were passed to the research analysis stage. The research tool was a questionnaire based on previous researches that included three sections of demographic information, stadium characteristics (23 items) and service experience (18 items). The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by 8 professors and experts and its reliability and construct validity were accepted using confirmatory factor analysis. Research data analysis included confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling which was performed using SmartPLS software. Descriptive analysis of the demographic information of the sample showed that people aged 46 to 55 years, with 33.30%, formed the largest volume of the research sample. Examining the demographic characteristics of the participants in this study in terms of their marital status shows that more than 75% of the sample size of the present study are married people. According to the collected data, among the participants in this study, people with bachelor's degree have the highest frequency. Descriptive analysis of the demographic information of the sample shows that the research sample is at a low level in terms of attendance at the stadium. So that more than 63 percent of the participants attend the stadium only one to five times a year, and in total, about 16 percent of the sample consists of people who attend more than 10 times a year. They attend the stadium. The results showed that among the characteristics of the stadium, the comfort of the seats, stadium Aesthetics, the cleanliness of the stadium and the design of the stadium have a positive and significant effect on the spectator service experience. However, the effect of stadium parking, stadium access and stadium food services on the spectator service experience was not significant. According to the results of this research, among the physical features of the stadium, the comfort of the seats has the greatest effect on the audience's service experience; This can be related to the fact that the Azadi football stadium had a platform instead of seats for a long time and Iran is one of the last countries that tried to install seats in stadiums. In almost all researches, the comfort of the seats is considered as one of the most important factors of the stadium (Dhurup et al., 2010; Gencer, 2011; Lee et al., 2004; Wakefield & Sloan, 1995) and is a factor which, together with the design of the stadium, have a direct effect on perceived crowding. Crowding perceived by the audience is one of the variables that has been identified in past researches that has a negative effect on the enjoyment and satisfaction of the audience from the place where the service is provided. As long as the spectators to enter and exit the stadium to go to its different parts, such as the spectators' stands, toilets, canteens, etc., face less problems and crowds and do not have to wait in long queues, they will have a better experience. And they will show more willingness to return to this environment. Therefore, it is suggested that new stadiums be designed in a way to facilitate the movement of spectators in the stadium. Things like wide corridors, a greater number of toilets, optimal design of seats and seats in such a way that there is enough space between the rows for movement, should be considered in this context. Also, in the current stadiums, it is possible to improve the allocation of stadium space for spectators with small changes. For example, increasing the number of ticket counters prevents long queues of spectators and prevents the spectators from feeling crowded and having an unpleasant experience.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sportscape
  • Service Experience
  • Spectators
  • Football
  • Premier League
  • Iran
Abdolmaleki, H. (2020). Modelling the Role of Ergonomy and Sportscape on Service Experience of Clients of E-Sport Business with Mediating of E- Word of Mouth. Communication Management in Sport Media, 8(1), 71-82.
Abdolmaleki, H. (2021). Prevalent Statistical and Methodological Errors of Sports Management Articles in Persian Publications. Sport Management Studies, 13(67), 170-201.
Abdolmaleki, H., & Babaei, M. (2021). Identifying and ranking factors affecting co-branding between manufacturers of sports equipment and football clubs of Iran Premier League. Sport Management Studies, 12(64). 233-254.
Abdolmaleki, H., Heidari, F., Zakizadeh, S. B., & Bosscher, V. D. (2019). Intellectual capital, the key to success in the management of high-performance sport organisations: The case of Iran’s Ministry of Sport and Youth. International Sports Studies, 41(2), 55-68.
Abdolmaleki, H., & Khodayari, A. (2021). Modelling the role of Physical and Subjective Factors on Re-Presence of Clients of E-Sport Business with mediating of E- Word of mouth. Communication Management in Sport Media, 8(3), 51-60.
Abdolmaleki, H., Khodayari, A., & Shariati, J. (2022). Modeling of the role of E-Word of Mouth on Business Performance of eSports with Mediating of Consumer Purchasing Behavior. Journal of Sport Management, 13(4), 1093-1105.
Abdolmaleki, H., Mirzazadeh, Z., & Alidoust Ghahfarokhhi, E. (2016). The role played by socio-cultural factors in sports consumer behavior. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 4(3), 17-25.
Akin, M., Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J., Wynstra, F., & Raaij, E. v. (2009). The impact of supply chain-related factors on the environmental performance of manufacturing firms in Turkey. Paper presented at the 18 th IPSERA Conference Supply Management–Towards an Academic.
Bagheri, H., Shahbaz Pour, L., & Nazemi, A. (2020). The Effect of Service Experience on Future Attendance of Football Spectators at the Stadium. Sport Management Studies, 11(58), 183-200. doi:10.22089/smrj.2019.7484.2589
Chen, Y. F., & Mo, H. e. (2012). Attendees' perspectives on the service quality of an exhibition organizer: A case study of a tourism exhibition. Tourism Management Perspectives, 1, 28-33. Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research, 295(2), 295-336.
Dhurup, M., Mofoka, M., & Surujlal, J. (2010). The relationship between stadium sportscapes dimensions, desire to stay and future attendance. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation & Dance, 16(3).
Drayer, J., & Shapiro, S. L. (2011). An examination into the factors that influence consumers’ perceptions of value. Sport Management Review, 14(4), 389-398.
Emamifar, A., Abdolmaleki, H., Noorbakhsh, M., & Khodayari, A. (2022). Financial fair play: An effective tool to get out of the financial problems of Iranian football clubs. Journal of Sport Management, (), -. doi: 10.22059/jsm.2022.335484.2864
Fallahi, A., Asadi, H., & Khabiri, M. (2009). The Comparison of Factors Affecting Casual, Regular and Enthusiastic Spectators’ Attendance at Football Pro-league matches. Journal of Sport Management, 1(2), 247-516.
Gau, L. S., Gailliot, M. T., & Brady, M. (2007). A model examining relationships among team identification, sport spectators’ motives, perceived service quality, and satisfaction. Sport marketing across the spectrum: research from emerging, developing, and established scholars. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.
Gencer, R. T. (2011). The relationship between team identification and service quality perceptions in professional football. African Journal of Business Management, 5(6), 2140-2150.
Gholizadeh, B., Talebpour, M., Kashtidar, M., & Abdolmaleki, H. (2018). Mouth advertising, an effective tool for loyalty of sport customers, case study: women's health clubs in Mashhad. International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 6(1), 51-64.
Güzel, F. (2013). The effects of sensory based positive emotions and feelings on post-purchasing behaviour: a research on German tourists. Anatolia: Turizm Arastirmalari Dergisi, 24(2), 226-236.
Hritz, N., & Ross, C. (2010). The perceived impacts of sport tourism: An urban host community perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 24(2), 119-138.
Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic management journal, 20(2), 195-204.
Hungenberg, E., Davies, M., & Bailey, A. (2016). Understanding the Adventure Sportscape‘s Impact on Consumers ‘Destination Image and Behavioral Intentions.
Hwang, J., & Lee, K. W. (2018). The antecedents and consequences of golf tournament spectators’ memorable brand experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 1-11.
Jaberi, A., Mazloomi soveini, F., khazaei pool, j., & Moradi, M. (2018). A Study of the Effect of Service Marketing Mix Factors on Satisfaction of Football Fans. Sport Physiology & Management Investigations, 9(4), 133-146.
Jin, N., Lee, S., & Lee, H. (2015). The effect of experience quality on perceived value, satisfaction, image and behavioral intention of water park patrons: New versus repeat visitors. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(1), 82-95.
Kaplanidou, K., & Gibson, H. J. (2010). Predicting behavioral intentions of active event sport tourists: The case of a small-scale recurring sports event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(2), 163-179.
Kaynak, E., Salman, G. G., & Tatoglu, E. (2008). An integrative framework linking brand associations and brand loyalty in professional sports. Journal of Brand Management, 15(5), 336-357.
Kerstetter, D., & Cho, M. H. (2004). Prior knowledge, credibility and information search. Annals of Tourism research, 31(4), 961-985.
Koenig-Lewis, N., Asaad, Y., & Palmer, A. (2018). Sports events and interaction among spectators: Examining antecedents of spectators’ value creation. European Sport Management Quarterly, 18(2), 193-215.
Lee, J., Graefe, A. R., & Burns, R. C. (2004). Service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention among forest visitors. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 17(1), 73-82.
Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of marketing, 80(6), 69-96.
Lim, J. S., Han, Y. H., & Yang, C. H. (2016). Selection Property, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention of Audiences of Sport Events. Paper presented at the International Conference on Convergence Technology.
Loureiro, S. M. C. (2014). The role of the rural tourism experience economy in place attachment and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 1-9.
Moss, S., Prosser, H., Costello, H., Simpson, N., Patel, P., Rowe, S., & Hatton, C. (1998). Reliability and validity of the PAS‐ADD Checklist for detecting psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of intellectual disability research, 42(2), 173-183.
Nazemi, A. G., M., & Khabiri, M. (2013). The Effect of Stadium Features on Spectators' Attendance in Iran Football Premier League. New Trends in Sport Management, 1(1), 65-77.
Pilus, A. H. M., Yusof, A. B., Bojei, J., Fauzee, M. S. O., Samah, B. A., & Aziz, R. A. A. (2010). The relationship of sportscape, motivation, loyalty satisfaction and intention to watch Malaysia Cup football. American Journal of Scientific Research, 7, 52-63.
Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard business review, 76, 97-105.
Ramzaninejad, R., Goharrostami, H., Ahmadi, F., & Norouzi, M. (2020). Survey factors affecting market demand of premier league soccer teams in the east azarbaijan province. Sports Marketing Studies, 1(2), 75-51.
Saeidi Majd, N., Abdolmaleki, H., & Khodatari, A. (2020). Identifying and prioritizing factors affecting the security of sport facilities Based on Fuzzy Delphi and MADM. Sports Marketing Studies, 1(3), 50-26.
Seifpanahi Shabani, J., & Hamidi, M. (2017). The investigation and analyses the methods of generating revenue by the world and Iranian football clubs. Sport Physiology & Management Investigations, 9(3), 21-31. 15.
Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. M., & Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 48(1), 159-205.
Theodorakis, N. D., Alexandris, K., Tsigilis, N., & Karvounis, S. (2013). Predicting spectators’ behavioural intentions in professional football: The role of satisfaction and service quality. Sport Management Review, 16(1), 85-96.
Van Doorn, M. (2006). An Inside story on the experience economy. Retrieved from
Wakefield, K. L., & Blodgett, J. G. (1994). The importance of servicescapes in leisure service settings. Journal of services marketing. Wakefield, K. L., & Sloan, H. J. (1995). The effects of team loyalty and selected stadium factors on spectator attendance. Journal of Sport Management, 9(2), 153-172.
Wongleedee, K. (2015). Marketing mix and purchasing behavior for community products at traditional markets. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 2080-2085.
Wu, H. C., & Li, T. (2017). A study of experiential quality, perceived value, heritage image, experiential satisfaction, and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(8), 904-944.
Yoshida, M., & James, J. D. (2010). Customer satisfaction with game and service experiences: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Sport Management, 24(3), 338-361